CONTOH PROPOSAL SKRIPSI
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENGLISH TEXTBOOK IN TEACHING READING FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL I PANCOR IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2005/2006?
In this chapter, the researcher discusses: background of problem, statement of problem, objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significant of the study, assumption of the study, hypothesis of the study and definition of key term.
1.1. Background of the Problem
Now days, English is the most important means of international communication. People from all over the world speak the language when they meet each other in every international meeting, conference, commerce or workshop. As the consequence, all countries in the world have set English as one of the subject studied at schools.
Indonesia as one of the developing country, has also set its educational curriculum which include the teaching of English as a foreign language. It is one of compulsory subject studied from junior and senior high school up to the university and starting from 2004/2005 school year, some Elementary School begin to teach English as an additional subject.
The teaching of English for Elementary School pupils now days becomes current topic to talk. It is because of more and more Elementary School teaches English as a local content in their school and also remember the policy of Republic Indonesia Education Minister number: 0407/U/1992 about Elementary School that gives a chance for the teaching of English for elementary school.
In this policy, it is mentioned that, Elementary School can add subjects according to the need, environment situation, and according to the characteristic of the related school, it is not decreasing the prevented curriculum nationally and not deviating of the national education purposes. The teaching of English in Elementary School is not an obligation and the teaching will be conducted if it is needed. But, there are many elementary schools motivate to teach English in their school. Besides, there is a demand of modern life which insists so that the basic of English must be taught as early as possible in the level of elementary school, because in this age, they experience the development of their cognitive process rapidly which make them easy to internalize the basic of English knowledge given to them, which finally enable them to develop their English skill in next higher school.
In teaching English for elementary school, there are some terms must be paid attention for the success of the learning process itself. Some of them are the teaching materials which must be relevant with the pupils’ level, appropriate teaching method, textbook using, skill full and qualified teacher which will teach the materials. Teacher must have a good and appropriate teaching technique in order to gain the teaching target and also pupils can motivate them selves in applying the teaching and learning technique. Teacher must pay attention forwards some terms, such as teaching material, student’s level, teaching aid, classroom management and many other aspects, because the use of inappropriate teaching can set difficulties for the student and also the teacher will fail in teaching and finally, will not be able to achieve the target and the purpose of the arranged teaching.
The teaching of English at Elementary school level is emphasized on the teaching of reading and it is considered as the most important language skill taught for Elementary school pupils. Therefore, it should be taught longer than the other language skill.
To get a good result in teaching reading at Elementary school, the teacher should start from the beginner, it means that starting from their young language learner. Young age learners learn foreign language, especially pronunciation is better than adolescence or adult, because young age learners’ organs of speech are more flexible and they are not obstructed of psychologies hindrances.
Beside that, a lot of pupils say that English is a very difficult subject, it cause by English are different in writing and reading. Many pupils feel boring to learn it, so that cause the pupils difficult to understand. Show from the reality that, there are so many pupils who studies at Junior High School and Senior High School do not able to read well a word or a sentence. It is very important for the teacher to teach the pupils how to read a word or a sentence as well as possible. Because learning English does not for a while, but will continue to the high level as Junior High School, Senior High School up to the university. That is the cause why the writer take this title.
In this study the writer would like to show the comparison student’s ability in reading short paragraph which have and doesn’t have a textbook. This research is aimed to know, to what extent is the effectiveness of English textbook in reading. The teacher would like to read a paragraph or a passage and the pupils would like to repeat after the teacher.
This research is conducted at the fifth year pupils of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006 which is aimed to know the effectiveness of English textbook toward student’s reading ability for the fifth year of Elementary School I Pancor.
1.2. Statement of the Problems
The problems which are investigated in this study are:
- Is textbook effective in teaching reading at the fifth year pupils of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006?
2. To what extent is the effectiveness of English textbook toward pupils reading ability at the fifth year student of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006?
1.3. Objective of the Study
This study is aimed at finding out:
- Textbook is effective in teaching reading at the fifth year pupils of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006.
- The effectiveness of English textbook toward student reading ability at the fifth year pupils of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006.
1.4. Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to the following scope:
- The subject of this study is all the fifth year pupils of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006.
- The object of this study is the textbook itself, whether textbook is effective in teaching reading for the fifth year pupils of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006.
1.5. Significance of the Study
This study will have some usages either theoretically or practically.
a. Provide the English teachers a scientific study on the effectiveness of English textbook in teaching reading for Elementary school.
b. Provide the English pupils an additional reference in searching the teaching of English for elementary school.
a. Help the learners of English to read correctly and fluently through the textbook.
b. Motivate the English teacher to apply a practical use of textbook in teaching English.
1.6. Assumption of the Study
In this case, the writer states that the assumption of this study as follows:
- It has not found out yet that the effect of using textbook in teaching reading at the fifth year pupils of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006.
- Textbook is regarded as the most appropriate media in teaching reading.
1.7. Hypothesis of the Study
In this study, the writer formulates the hypothesis of the study as follows: “The pupils who have a textbook in learning reading have higher ability in reading than the pupils who do not have a textbook”
1.8. Definition of Key Term
1. Reading is a kind of activity in translating written symbols into corresponding sound.
2. Textbook is a medium for pupils as a control or a guide in their teaching activities.
3. Elementary school pupils are pupils who are studying in the Elementary School for fifth year at the time of the studying.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
After formulating the problem of the study, the researcher arrives at one important process of finding some related information.
This chapter discusses (1) the nature of English textbook; (2) the nature of reading; (3) the relevant study and (4) theoretical framework.
2.1. The Nature of Textbook
Teaching aids is an important thing for teacher to arouse pupil’s motivation and attention. And in teaching learning process the people often listen the sign of the fail of the teacher in one side and the pupils in another, some factors which influence the teaching learning process such as: the lack of motivation from the pupil’s motivation and the less attention in the subject matter. These are caused by their poor understanding of the goal of the materials. However, it is very important for the English teacher to arouse the pupil’s interest. One of teacher effort is to give the lesson by mastery of many skills to plan of learning activities that have variation and interest.
What the writer takes as the object of this research is the effectiveness of using textbook toward the reading ability. The writer thinks that textbook is one of media. Teachers use textbook as a teaching aid and it is needed to conduct the teaching learning process in the classroom. It is expected that the pupil can improve their competence and performance.
The effect of modern technology is one of aspect, which influence the education system, particularly in using the media. The media is an important instrument which involves: the audio-visual aid and other complements like: blackboard, table, book and etc.
Modern schools have used many kinds of teaching media which is suitable with the subject and for all subjects like radio and TV. Although many kinds of media are used, in general the teacher is the first source to give the stimulus for the pupils to learn. Her or she uses: pictures, flash cards, TV and teaching machine. (Nasution, 2000: 194).
Textbook is a book as a media, consist of many kinds of the suitable and relevant topic or content that the teacher used in teaching learning process which both teachers and pupils use them. The use of textbooks depends on the teachers in the school. Textbook meant in this research is the textbook published by Yudhistira (Private Publishing Company).
On the other hand, Richards (1998) states that, while the roles of teacher teaching and learning have been the focus of researchers over the years, research relating to textbook has been neglected. For example, very little is known about how teachers use textbook or whether they use textbooks at all.
Although much planning goes into the production of textbook, the role of textbook is a rather subjective one depending on the situation as textbook can bring about positive or negative effects. On a positive note a textbook is a whole component that can act as a guide to teachers an especially to new inexperienced teacher.
Good textbook relieve teachers of having to think of materials for every class (Harmer in Richards, 1998) and textbook provide learners with an orientation to the learning programe (Hutchinson and Torres in Richards, 1998).
Hutchinson and Torres in Richards (1998: 129) point out that the textbook facilitates teachers in many aspects:
…….The textbook saves time, give direction to lessons, guides discussion, facilitates giving of homework, making teaching easier, better organized, more convenient, and learning easier, faster, better, most of all the textbook provides confidence and security.
Cunningsworth (1984) on the other hand states that textbooks are good servants but poor masters and that teachers should use the textbook to suit the needs of the learners and the lesson rather than to let the textbook decide on the needs of the learners and the lesson.
“No teacher should permit the coursbook to set the objectives, let alone allow’ teaching the coursbook’ to be the objective” (Cunningsworth, 1984: 1)
There is also a great danger that teachers may depend entirely on textbook. Talking for granted the fact that the textbook has been produced by a team of experts, some teachers may be under the assumption that everything include in the textbook is a must and therefore needs to be included in their lesson. Swan in Richards (1998) states that in such situations teachers tend to sit back and follow the textbook without participating in the day-to-day decision making process. Teaching then tends to become so mechanical that lessons are best on the contents of the textbook only, without the teachers so much as looking in to the suitability of the activities and the needs of the learners.
2.1.1. Concept of English Textbook
The English textbooks are one supplement in learning English. By the help of English textbook will make the teaching and learning process go smoothly. The incompleteness of the book means the problems of the pupils in learning English. By reading textbooks pupils are easier gets pasy to understand the point of material given by teacher, so, the process of the learning will be effective and efficient. The teacher is not suppose to writer down the materials that are going to teach on the blackboard, because it is time consuming than that if the teacher write it.
The functions of English textbooks are to supporting of study materials of the study in learning process. Teachers as an element in education field must realize that both curriculum and textbook have a close relationship. But curriculum exists before textbook. Curriculum is an instrument to attain the aim of education. To implement the curriculum we need textbooks, in other word textbooks are facilities used at school to support the teaching English process.
As a media in teaching learning process, textbooks have many advantage, in the first place, its have a consistent syllabus and vocabulary will have been chosen with care. Good textbooks have a range of reading and listening material and workbooks, for example to back them up. Its have dependable teaching sequences and, at the very least, they offer teachers something to fall back on when its run out of ideas of their own (Harmer, 19 :117).
2.1.2. Kind of English Textbook
Generally, there are two kinds of textbook that usually use in the schools, its use for Elementary School, Junior High School, Senior High School up to the University. The two kinds of its are: (1) the books that is published by epdikbud, and (2) the books that is published by Private Publishing Company.
All of the books are may use with provided that is not deviate from the certainty of Depdiknas, that, the textbooks must in accordance with the level of the pupils, and have relevance with the curriculum. So in teaching learning process, the teachers as not as like bring the pupils run away without any purposes.
English textbook include the reading textbook, grammar, curriculum, teachers’ hand book, dictionary and other supplements books. Where the reading textbook is the book consist of many kind of the reading and the story, grammar is a book that consist of the role of formulating the sentences and arranging the words, along with the study about kind of words and sentences, curriculum is a book that use as a standard in teaching learning. Teachers’ handbook is a book as a source for the teacher in giving information to the student in the classroom, dictionary is a group of words that have meaning as a guide for the teacher and the student in teaching learning process.
2.1.3. Textbook Selection
Selecting a textbook is an important step. A teacher chooses a book do not depend on his or her wish, but must pay attention to the curriculum.
In selecting a textbook, we have to know many aspects that have any interrelated with the textbook selection. They are:
How expensive is the textbook? Can the pupils afford it? Will they have to buy an accompanying textbook? Can they afford both? What about the teacher; can he or she pay for the teacher’s book and tapes?
Is the course available? Are all its components (pupils’ book, teacher’s book, workbook etc.) in the shop now? What about the next level (for the next term/semester)? Has it been published? Is it available? What about tapes, videos, etc.?
What kind of teaching and learning does the book promote? Can teachers and pupils build appropriate ESA sequences from it? Is there a good balance between study and activation?
Does the book cover the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) adequately? Is there a decent balance between the skills? Are the opportunities for both study and activation in the skill work? Is the language of the reading and listening texts appropriate? Are the speaking and writing tasks likely to engage the pupils’ interest? Etc.
Textbooks play a very crucial role in the realm of language teaching and learning and are considered the next important factor in the second/foreign language classroom after the teacher. The textbook is a tool in the hands of the teacher, and the teacher must know not only how to use it, but how useful it can be. The wealth of published material for English language teaching (ELT) available in the market makes selecting the right course book a challenging task. Moreover, the selection of a particular core textbook signals an executive educational decision in which there is considerable professional, financial and even political investment.
In finding another sources and to create the students advance, there are some characteristic of textbooks which is suitable to used. It in line with this statement.
Many textbooks and supplementary school books have suitable visual material. Work with textbook pictures often provides useful introductory, supplementary or revision practice with the language of the associated lessons. The same pictures can also be used quire separately language items. Other sources like; (a) children’s pictures books, pictures puzzle books and pictures games in the FL or mother tongue; (b) children’s pages of newspaper or books without words; (c) newspaper, colors supplements and magazine, particularly the advertisements; (d) mail order catalogues, advertising brochures, etc. for pictures of object; (e) posters, brochures, maps, slides, films, etc. from travel companies, hotel chains; (f) realia: models, toys, toy money, (empty) containers of foreign goods; items such as postcard, travel and other tickets, timetables, theater programs, immigration or hotels forms, menus, etc.
Taking these two points into consideration, and given the fact that language teaching and learning is contexts- and situation-bound, it is important that for each specific situation the best possible text is chosen. Therefore, English language teachers and administrator need to get acquainted with the principles of textbook evaluation as well as the available evaluation checklist and scheme.
2.1.4. The Different Options for Textbook use
When teachers open a page in their textbook, they have to decide whether they will use the lesson on that page with their class. Is the language at the right level? Is the topic/content suitable for the pupils? Are there the right kinds of activities in the book? Is the sequencing of the lesson logical?
If the language, content and sequencing of the textbook are appropriate, the teacher will want to go ahead and use it, if how eve, there is something wrong with the textbook, the teacher has to decided what to do next. In this case, there is nothing wrong for the teacher with omitting lesson from textbook. Teachers do it all the time, developing a kind of ‘pick and choose’ approach to what’s in front of them. However, if the teacher omits too many pages, the pupils may begin to wonder why they are using the book in the first place, especially if they have bought it themselves.
The second option is to replace the textbook lesson with one of the teacher’s own. This has obvious advantages; the teacher’s own material probably interests him or more than the textbook and it may well be more appropriate for the pupils. If the teacher is dealing with the same language or topic, the pupils can still use the book to revise that particular language/vocabulary. But the same comments apply here as for omission, if too much of the textbook is replaced, both pupils and teacher may wonder if it is worth bothering with it at all.
The third option is to add to what is in the book. If the lesson is rather boring, too controlled, or if it gives no chance for pupils to use what they are learning in a personal kind of way, the teacher may want to add activities and exercise which extend the pupils’ engagement with the language or topic.
Most pupils and teachers would recognize the truth behind these criticisms of textbooks - whether they teach language, mathematics, or geography. They are sometimes uninteresting and lacking in variety, for example, and all teachers can remember times when they saw the way a textbook treated a piece of language or a reading text and thought could do it much better themselves. Added to this must be the ever present danger that both teacher and pupils will get locked into the book, using its content as the only material which is taken into the classroom.
The last option is for the teacher to adapt what is in the book. If in the reading text in the textbook is dealt with in a boring or uncreative way, the teacher can adapt the lesson, using the same basic material but doing it in his or her own style.
Using textbooks creatively is one of the premier teaching skills. However good the material is most experienced teachers do not go though it word for word. Instead, the teachers use the best bits, add to some exercises and adapt ideas from others. Sometimes, the teachers replace textbook material with their own ideas - or from other teachers and books, - and occasionally the teachers may omit the textbook lesson completely.
2.1.5. Indicator of English Textbook
In this case, the writer will discuss about the term of English textbook. There are three terms include in it, they are adding, adapting and replacing.
As we know that most textbook have word lists, sometimes at the back of the book, sometimes at the end of a unit or a section. These are usually ignored, except by some pupils who often writer inaccurate translations of the words.
There are immediately things that the teachers can do with such an apparently static collection of words. They fall into three categories, they are:
a. Personal Engagement
The teacher can ask pupils many questions about the meaning of the word. It is about the positive and the negative meaning. They can ask whether any of the words look or sound like words in their language and whether they mean the same.
b. Word Study
The teacher can ask a number of questions about how the words are constructed. Pupils can be asked to make a list of words which are stress on the first, second or the third syllables. In this section, the student will study what kid of words that they study.
c. Word Game
After a discussion about headlines, the pupils are asked to use words from the list in headlines. The word list can be used for expansion too. The teacher will give the student a kind of sentence and asks them to expand it using words from the list and adding any necessary grammar word too.
There are many other games-like activities. Their purpose is to get pupils using and playing with the words in a word list – something often seen as dreary and uninteresting.
126.96.36.199.Adapting (elementary / pre-intermediate)
In this example, the teacher decides that though, there is absolutely nothing wrong with the textbook page in front of him, if the teachers want to do it differently, perhaps for motivational reasons and the need of the pupils to find the kind of role-play activity in their lesson.
The teacher use of role-play, letter writing etc, is neither better nor worse than the material in the textbook; it simply different because the teacher though it would be more appropriate for a particular group of pupils and their teacher on a particular day.
The example shows how a teacher takes an original text book ideal, adapt it, putting in his own activities whilst staying faithful to the language and topic of the writers.
188.8.131.52.Replacing (Lower Intermediate)
In teaching learning process, the teacher may replace textbook material with their own ideas. The teacher’s decision to try and find his own material leads to a radically different type of lesson.
The aim of replacing textbook material wants pupils to practice the “would like” construction in any types of sentences.
This kind of replacement activity, if used sparingly, is really good for the teacher and the class, it completely changes the atmosphere and its unusualness makes it memorable. The pupils practice the language, the textbook wants them to, but in a completely different context.
2.2. The Nature of Reading
Reading is n active cognitive process of interaction with print and monitoring comprehension of establishing meaning which means the brain does not work in reading, the pupils get information by comprehending the massage and the teacher motivate the pupils to read (Lado, 1961: 65). Furthermore, Gloria (1988: 43) States that the definition of reading comprehension is most likely to occur when pupils are reading what they want to read, or at least what they see some good reasons to read.
Lado (1961: 56):
Reading in the foreign language consists of grasping meaning in the written language. In this case, reading foreign language is the grasping of full linguistics meaning of what is to read in subject within the common experience of the culture of which the language is a central part. He further maintains that linguistics means to include the denotation conveyed by language to all speakers of it is as opposed to meaning that are receptive only by those have specific background information not known by the other speakers in general. In other word, there are some purposes of reading such as reading for specific items of information, for general and detail information in a given field, etc. other types of reading, for example readings for literary appreciation are properly the real of reading in the native language.
Learning to read a new language, the pupils must read carefully, some aloud, moreover some questions are also important of the passages, as in the following statement by Berry (1956: 44):
There must be question on the text, this essential. The questions are to help the pupils understanding every detail on the passage, for example, the passage is about “hide and seek”. It means that the questions on the passage are able to facilitate the pupils understanding of the passage; the children are playing hide and seek in the playground, and the question are (1) who is playing hide and seek in the playground ? (2) What are the children playing in the playground? (3) what are they doing in the playground and where are they playing hide and seek?
Psychologists and the reading experts have been conducting extensive research in the nature of reading and the sequential development of language skill. Among discoveries of the researchers, as stated by Lewis and Sisk in Gerry (1956: 34) are:
(a) reading is not a single skill but an interrelated process of many skill, (b) reading is development process, in other words, reading comprehension develops sequentially as pupils nature, (c) there are developmental pattern from grade to grade and from year to year, but wide variations in reading ability exist among pupils in any grade or of any age, and (d) there are no basic reading comprehension which can be taught or learned once or for all, they are merely simpler or more difficult levels of reading proficiencies, which can be taught to pupils who are ready to learn.
2.2.1. Concept of Reading
Although, on the world wide level, the format of teaching reading skill may differ according to local circumstances, the 1994 English GBPP Stresses the implementation of teaching reading skill in an integrated skill unit. It means that reading is thought integrated with the other language skill. Such as, teaching vocabulary, grammar, punctuation and the way construct sentences, paragraphs and texts.
The development of reading skills mostly occurs in this stage. To be effective reader, the pupils should be able to (1) scan; (2) skim; (3) read between the lines; (4) read intensively; and (5) deduce meaning from the context. Scan means that the pupils glance rapidly through the text to get specific information. Skim means that he pupils glance or read the text quickly to get general information. Read between the lines means that the pupils get the meaning or obtain the information of the text from line to line.
Read intensively means that the pupils play their concentration in reading to get detail information. Deduce meaning from context means that the pupils take a conclusion or the meaning of the text from the context.
In the classroom, pupils are often asked to do the reading tasks in groups. By so doing, they practice their speaking and listening skills’. Some reading tasks may also be constructed in such a way that pupils can practice their writing skills. Inn this context, whilst-reading stage really reflects the implementation of integrated language skills.
Post-reading activities. In this stage the teacher will then probably organize some kinds of follow-up task related to the text. Thus, if the pupils have answered question about a letter, (Harmer, 1991: 189). In this case, the task are related to the text given and it is intended as a kinds of follow-up activity because it is done after the pupils have understood well about the content of the reading text.
The post-reading task may vary from the simple one, e.g. writing letter.
Of course, the entire task should be still related to the topic of reading, the same as whilst-reading stage. In the post-reading stage, pupils can also be encouraged to discourse the task in pair or group.
2.2.2. Reading Process
In very real sense, reading process is a progress report. It means that a major reason for the lack of forward motion in attempts to develop more effective reading in striation was a common failure to examine and articulate a clear view of the reading process it self. Knowledge is non-cumulative in improving reading instruction largely because either ignore the reading process and focus on the manipulation of teacher or pupils behaviors of because they related reading as an unknowable mystery.
Goodman, in Long, H Michael and Jack C Richards (1988: 11) says that: “(1) Reading is what reading is and every body knows that; usually this translates to ‘reading is matching sounds to letters’; (2)’Nobody knows how reading works’”. This view usually leads to a next premise; therefore, in instruction, what ever ’works’ is its justification.
Both views are non-productive at best and the worst seriously impede progress. Furthermore, the effort has been to create a model of the reading process powerful enough to explain and predicate reading behavior and sound enough to be a base on which to build and examine the effectiveness of reading instruction. This model has been developed using the concepts, scientific methodology, and terminology of psycholinguistics, the interdisciplinary science that is concerned with how thought and language are interrelated.
2.2.3. Reading Technique
A technique is an implementation, that which actually takes place in a classroom; it is a particular trick, stratagem, or continuance used to accomplish an immediate objective. Technique must be consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.
In teaching if reading, explains that there are techniques used, such as
Scanning means glancing rapidly through a text to search for a specific piece of information. So, when scanning, it a searching process that requires the pupils to find what they need. If the pupils are looking for data, they are looking for numbers, and so on.
Skimming is useful skill to be applied in reading. This kind of reading is quick reading for the general ideas of passage. The pupils can be asked to say briefly what a text is about. For example: which of these topics deal with the text? (A list of given topic). To answer the question, the pupils can answer by glancing over the surface of a text.
2.2.4. Reading for Elementary School
The objective of the teaching reading at elementary school is to develop pupils’ reading skill, so that the pupils can read text effectively and efficiently. It is usual to start by teaching every day words which are already familiar to the pupils. the teacher shows the pupils the word and says it while pointing to the object.
As we know that, teaching English in elementary school emphasize on reading, so, pronunciation rules are become very complicated as a basic to introduce. The letters or who do not have a one to one relationship between letters and sounds in their own written language.
In general, the purpose of reading is classified into (1) getting general information from the text; (2) getting specific information from the text and (3) reading for pleasure or for interest (William, 1984). This classification of the purpose of reading is implemented to the development of different reading strategies e.g. scanning, skimming, reading between the lines, etc.
To b e efficient reader, pupils should be presented to various kinds of the text so that they can be flexible to choose the type of text that they read, (Mc Donough and Shaw in Gullet, 1981: 78) Therefore matching of reading skill to a reading purpose skilled readers or pupils scan to locate specific information in a text and skim to extract general information from it. In this case, the efficient readers are not passive and do not operate in vacuum but they react with the text by having expectation and ideas about possible outcomes. The efficient readers also interrogate materials of all types by looking for cues in titles, sub-titles, and within the passage are self.
2.3. The Relevant Study
In this part, the writer states the relevant studies which are possible in adding the readers view about the effect of using textbook toward student reading ability in elementary school. In this case, actually the writer never finds out or listens about the same research. But the writer find a research close to this study so that the writer conclude that just the researcher herself that do this research.
2.4. Theoretical Frame Work
Based n the theoretical description and result of the relevant studies, the writer arrives at theoretical framework of this study.
In English language teaching in Indonesian, reading is placed in high priority, we can see it from the curriculums. Senior high school curriculums, junior high school curriculum, even at elementary school emphasize the English language teaching on the reading comprehension ability.
Therefore, reading is the most important language skills for pupils t study hard, by reading the knowledge of the pupils will gradually increase, beside developing their ability in other language skills. But reading without comprehension is means nothing because reading comprehension is an active process to get the information from the text.
The aim of pupils in learning English at elementary school is to master reading, listening, speaking and writing. In teaching learning process these four language skill should be thought integrative. And each of the skills is applied trough some steps i.e. pre-reading activity, whilst-reading activity.
By teaching four language skill in interactively, that is involves reading, listening, speaking and writing. In this case is limited for the reading skills itself to involve the pupils in learning activities i.e.; (1) To expands the pupils knowledge and art; (2) to motivates the student to be a good personality in their country; (3) to expands the pupils social intercourse. So that in this case, the ability of the pupils will be increased by using textbook with are published by Depdikbud (Government) and Yudistira (Private Publishing Company)
This chapter discuss (a) research design; (b) population and sample; (c) research instrument; (d) procedure of data collection; (e) procedure of data analysis.
This chapter is an important part in writing a scientific report. All scientific writing has a special aim. It should be written systematically and use a certain method to reach its truth, because its result is mainly determined by the methodology used.
Suryabrata (2000: 108) states that: the scientific writing is called reliable depending on the methodology used. It is in line with Antony as quoted by Richard (1993: 15) states that: method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon the selected approach.
This study refers to the quantitative research with two variables. It investigates the effectiveness of using textbook toward student reading ability, so the researcher wants to know the effect of those two variables.
Arikunto (1998: 89) states that the types of research can be established from the variables of the study, and she (1998: 29) also states that if the researcher wants to know what, how much, how many, how long the conditional of thinks, it is called a descriptive research. Based on the data got and the phenomena observed, this study is called descriptive quantitative research.
In describing the study, the writer formulates the title of the effectiveness of using English textbook toward student reading ability. This study is aimed at finding out the effect of using English textbook for the fifth year of Elementary School I Pancor in the school year 2005/2006.
This is experimental design study. In this research, there are some steps used by the experimenter such as: 1) giving the pupils explanation about the texts; 2) collecting the data; 3) calculating the data; 4) writing the thesis report.
The subject design of the research is as follows
A/B : class experimental
X : treatment for the first experimental group using English textbook
Y : treatment for the second experimental group that do not use English textbook
T1/T2 : test given for each group
Population and Sample
This part discusses population and sample.
Population of the Study
The population of the study is the two classes of the fifth year pupils of SDN 1 Pancor in the school year of 2005/2006. population as states by Arikunto (1998: 115) that the whole of the subject research is called population research. It is in line with Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation and he (1998: 115) states that: a population is a set (or collection) of all elements possessing one or more attribute of interest.
Based on the last definition about the population, can be taken the conclusion that the subject of all the study is all of the pupils which have the same characteristics and will be investigated through this research.
The population of this study is all of the pupils at fifth year student that is divided into two groups: VA, VB.
Table 3.1. The members of population of the study
Sample of the Study
To determine of the study, the writer took what Arikunto (1998: 120) suggested that sample is a part of representative of population that are examined or investigated. Furthermore he also states that if the population less than hundred, the whole numbers of population must be taken. But if the populations are more than 100, it can be taken between 10-15%, 20-25% or more than it.
Then, the researcher referred to his theory by taking all of the pupils VA and VB as the sample of the study because both of each of the classes consisted of 30 pupils. So the sample are 60 pupils (less than one hundred pupils) about 30-50% it is belonged to population research.
Table 3.2. The number of sample of the study
X : treatment for the first group
Y : treatment for the second group
In this study, the writer use test to get the scores of the pupils. Arikunto (1998: 130) states that: test is question which is used to measure the skills, knowledge, intelligence, achievement aptitude, and another capability of someone or a group of people. It is in line with what Brown (1994: 253) states that: a test has a purpose of measuring a test measures a person’s ability or knowledge.
While Nurkancana (1986: 25) states that test is a way to conduct the research in task form, compared with another by using pupils’ mark. In the presents study, the instrument use is multiple-choice, consist of 45 questions with 5 passages.
Try-Out of Instrument
Before the test use, the writer will try-out the test. Try-out as conduct to determine validity and reliability of the test. Each of the tests try-out to the 30 pupils of six year pupils who do not belong to the sample of this study. For this purpose, the writer choose the try-out subjects for the six year student of SDN 1 Pancor because it has the same characteristic with the subject of this research. Another reason of the writer to try-out of the test is to determine the times allotted and the pupils do the test, while the writer will limit their time for answering the test as long as 90 minutes.
Validity of Instrument
Validity is measurement that is showing the validity level of the instrument (Arikunto; 1998: 160). In other word, test validity defines as the extent to which instrument measures, it is supposed to measure and nothing else. There are various methods can be used to see validity of the test, one of them is concurrent validity. This type of validity is determined by establishment relationship or discriminating power. In other word, concurrent validity is the degree to which the score on a test administered at the same time or to it other valid criteria available at the same time.
An instrument or a test can be called valid if it at least consists of the content and construct validity. “Content validity of test refers to the suitability of a test result with ability elements to be assessed”. Whereas, construct validity is “the validity of a test based on the conformity between an instrument used with concept of theory that underlined it”. Then, the test employed in this study was valid based on content and construct validity. Because, the test was taken from the English textbook of Elementary School by Yudistira relate on English curriculum.
Reliability of Instrument
Test reliability defines the degree, to which a test consistently measures whatever it will measure. The more confidence that has scores obtained from the administration of a test are essentially the same score that will be obtain if the test a readministrated.
To estimate the reliability of the test score, the Kuder-Richardson 21 in Arikunto (1998: 185).
r11 = reliabilitas instrument
k = total numbers of items
M = mean score
V = total variant
Another part, for this study, the writer will identify the item difficulty by using this formula, Oller in Nurgiyantoro (1995: 139).
IF : item difficulty
FH : frequency high
FL : frequency low
N : both of group numbers
Procedure of Data Collecting
Data is one very important thing in research. Because the researcher conducted this research in two group of pupils to collect the data, so the method of collection of this study follows these steps:
(1) The researcher will ask the pupils to read the text.
(2) Each of the text consist of 5 to 10 questions in a passage.
(3) They will ask to answer the questions from the passage.
Procedure of Data Analysis
After getting the data completed, based for the researcher to analysis the data. In analysis the data, there three important thing such as: (1) descriptive of the data, (2) normality of the data, (3) hypothesis testing.
Descriptive of the Data
Before conducting the means and the standard deviation of the first experimental and the second experimental group, the writer will categorize the data by using descriptive statistic.
The data will be categorized into: high, average, and low categories. From the purpose, the writer will use the formula as follows:
Mi + 1 SDi up to Mi + 3 SDi is high
Mi – 1 SDi up to < Mi + SDi is average
Mi – 3 SDi up to < Mi – SDi is low
(Dantes, 1983: 78)
The statistic includes; the ideal maximum score (SMi); the ideal means score (Mi), and the ideal standard deviation (SDi). The formula is used in describing Mi and SDi is Mean (M): ½ x (maximum ideal score + minimum ideal score) and standard deviation (SD): 1/6 x (maximum ideal score – minimum ideal score).
Normality of the Data
Normality of the data will conduct to know whether the data research has normal distribution. The researcher will use the technique of chi-square (x2) to analyze the data.
The normality testing of the data with the chi-square (x2) can be done by all of the people, because it do not need the especially medium such as testing with the paper of normal probability (Arikunto: 1998: 313).
Relating with hypothesis testing, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) must be change into null hypothesis (Ho). It is known that Ho is a hypothesis that will be tested weather accepted or rejected depending on the result of the investigation.
Relating with hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis has a positive effect of using textbook toward student reading ability and has no positive effect of using textbook toward reading ability for the fifth year pupils of SDN 1 Pancor in the school year 2005-2006 as the null hypothesis.
In testing hypothesis of this study the t-test is used, as follows:
t = computation of correlation
Mx = the mean score of each group
My = the number of sample of each group
X1 = deviation of X1 and X2
X2 = deviation of Y1 and Y2
Nx = sample of first experimental group
Ny = sample of second experimental group
S = the sigma
Ö = the root of
The criterion of examining Ho used in this study is that Ho will rejected if t-value is same or more than t-table. In the certain degree with the significant rank is 0,01, while Ho will accept if the t-values less than t-table in the certain degree with the significant rank 0,01.