contoh proposal skripsi
1.1 Background of The Study
Sometimes, English is difficult to learn, but one of the ways is improve our english. It is by music. we can convey our ideas in our mind and to develop our talent. There are advantages that we can get when we are listening to music by practicing the song, as a result we can get new vocabulary, get a pronounciations, and to be a good translations, etc.
Music needs a liric to make the song more interesting. A lyric can indeed convey states of mind immeditely. The lyric line appears to have considerable gaps, there was a litle writing between the end 17th century and the romantic, but the 18th century was the great age of hymn-writing.
The English song is not difficult to understand if the listeners know the basic ideas and the purpose of song lyric, and most English popular songs use figurative language in their song.
Based on the fact above the writer used literary analysis as the research of the study, especially the lyric of the britney spears songs that contain some figurative language. Britney is known to be new artist and become popular not for along time, so that everybody know her.
In this study the writer studies the whole kind of figurative language. The student of English department must take some course that deal with literature; one should consider the form literature, one of elements of literature is poetry. Poetry is the most compressed from literature. It is composed of carefully chosen words expression great dept of meaning, and uses specific devices such as connotation sound and rythm to express the appropriate combination of meaning and emotion.
Poetry is short compared to prose and have some components that are divided in to large group which are independent. It is the structure from the form of poem. It is the content of poetry which can only be perceived by searching ‘something behind’ a poem.
Actually each of figurative meanings makes the English language a live, interesting and fun. A composer can imagine all about their mind by writing a song.
1.2 Problem of the Study
The problem statements of this research are focused of the figurative language that use in the lyric of Britney Spears’ songs. This problem statement will be specified as fiollows:
1. What kind of figurative languages are used in the lyrics of Britney Spears’ songs?
2. What does the meaning of each figurative language used in the lyricss of Britney Spears songs?
3. How often the figurative languages are appears in the lyrics of Britney Spears’ songs?
1.3 The Objective of the Study
Based on the problems statement the objective the study is to get description about:
1. To find out the types of figurative language in the lyrics of Britney Spears songs?
2. To find out the meaning of each figurative language used in the lyrics of Britney Spears’ songs?
3. To know how often the figurative language appear in the lyrics of Britney Spears songs?
1.4 Significance of the Study
The meaning of figurative language is not only for art liked by composer or poet. For instance is in education.
For literature of poem, it still consists of modern or old version poems. It has usage for them, which are helping to understand some literature. The literature of figurative will be learned by the researcher to get some information about figurative language used in English popular song in figurative symbol.
For English students, if they apply this study they will be understand the information about English song to improve capability to devide between figurative language, symbol that appear in English popular songs. The students tries to translate the figurative language and then give the meaning.
For the Teacher will get information about the used English popular songs as the media for teaching English and also get information about inds of figurative language.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
There is clear delimitation in this thesis analyzed and the writer will try to restrict in the scope of definition and explanation. Figurative language will be discussed to used in the lyrics of Britney Spears songs especially in the first in the first album. There are songs in the Britney Spears’ first album: ‘baby one more time, sometimes, born to make you happy, drive me crazy, email my heart, I will love you, thinking about you, I will be there, From the bottom of my heart, The beat goes, Soda pop.
1.6 Definition of Key Therm
To avoid misunderstanding the word used will be defined as follows:
1. Figurative language is the system of sounds and words used by humans to express their thoughts and feelings.
2. Lyric is the word of song that is short poem written in the simple and direct style and usually express personal emotion.
3. Song is (a short poem) that formed by some line composition or other set of words adapted for singing or intended to be song.
REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE
Robert Forst, an American well known poet (in Ching, 1980:140) says that poetry is the art of saying one thing to meaning another. William Wordsworth (in Reubun, 2000:1) defines poetry as ‘the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings, recollected in tranquility’. So poetry is the most compressed form of literature. It is composed of carefully chosen words expressing great dept of meaning. Poetry uses specific devices such as connotation, sounds, and rythm to express the appropriate combination of meaning and emotion.
Poetry describes some story. It is having division and it will describe something. There are 6 divisions of poetry:
1. Epic is narrative poetry occasionally. Often, it is consist a civilization, related to some heroic figure or in action in which the pride of a nation.
2. Ballad. It is form was spoken narrative, usually unwritten, capable of improvisation in detail of incident and expression.
3. Narrative Poetry. The Epic and ballad are far from exhausting the varieties of narrative poetry. It is wide range can be illustrated by reference to such collection, where many kinds exists side by side
4. Dramatic poetry. It is poetry in which the poet speaks not in his own person but he merging in the character that he has created out his imagination
5. Elegy. The Elegy in English has no conventional form such as it had in classical literature. In greek and latin all emotional or reflective poems written in alternate dactylic hemameters and pentameters were called elegiac.
6. The ode. Its from a greek root, meaning ‘to sing’ implies a relation with the lyric, but the term still retains a sense of a poem written for special occasion, or an invocation, which aims at a high elevation of thought and feeling.
A poem should be read several times in order to hear it and feels its emotions. The more times we read the poem, the more we can analyze the understand subtle shades of meaning in a poem. These shades of meaning are often conveyed through specific poetic devices, or part of the poem.
There are part of poem:
a. Speaker is the created narrative voice (the person the readers is supposed to imagine is talking
b. Audience is the person or the people to whom the speaker can address another character character in the poem, the reader.
c. Subject is the general or specific topic of the poem (what the poem about)
d. Tone is the poet’s attitude toward the subject of the poem (this may be different the speaker’s attitude). We can identify the tone of the poem by nothing the author’s use of poetic devices such as diction, rhythm and syntax
e. Theme is the statement the poem/plot makes about its subject. (theme for poetry has slightly different meaning than theme for a work of fiction)
f. Diction is the poet’s choice of words, the poet chooses each word carefully so that both its meaning and sound contribute to the tone and feeling of the poem
g. Syntax is the organization of words, phrases and clauses. Finding the right syntax for a poem is like the finding right light before you take a photograph. If the order of the words is ‘wrong’, the emotional, psychological, and spiritual impact of the words will be lost.
h. Imaginary is the words of phrases used specifically to help the reader to imagine each of the sense: smell, touch, sight, hearing and taste. The type of imagery has a specific name:
o Olfactory is imagery stimulates the sense of smell
o Tactile is imagery stimulates the sense of touch
o Visual is imagery stimulates the sense of touch
o Auditory is imagery stimulates the sense of hearing
o Gustatory is imagery stimulates the sense of taste
o Kinesthesia is imagery stimulates the sense of natural body (ex: a pulse, breating)
o Synesthesia is imagery stimulates the sense of one sense to evoke another (ex: loud color, warm gesture)
i. Figurative of speech are the poetic devices in which two images or objects are compared to makes the poem more interesting ang meaningful.
There are figures of speech:
1. Simile is the comparison that uses the words like or as, or verb like seems or appears to draw two objects or images into relationship. Example: your eyes as the sky, you eat like a bird.
2. Methapor is the functions the same way simile does, except that the comarison is more implied and the words like or as are omitted. The verb to be is used. Example: your cheeks are red cherries
3. Personification is the type of metaphor that gives living qualities to inanimate object or abstract ideas; or human qualities (feeling, thought) to animals. It gives non-living things and animals the ability to think, feel emotions, or have human relationships.
Example: the Moon smiles. Fires rage
4. Synecdoche is form of metaphor where one part stands for the whole, or the whole is substituted for one part. In other words we speak of something by naming only a part of it. Example: Robby got wheels this summer. Wheels=car
5. Alusion is a refrence made to another literary work, historical event, work of art, or a famous person’s quote that adds more depth to the poet’s/authors meaning. In fact all poems retelling old stories are allusive. Example: a modern version of casey and the bad would allude to the old ballad.
6. Simbolism. When an author used an object or ideas to suggest more than its literal meaning. A person, place, or event stands for something other than it, usually something broader or deepeer than it is
7. Understatement (litotes, meioses). Saying something with an overly light tone, the speaker’s words convey less emotion than he actually feels. Examples: i’m really glad that you have to visit’ said the spider to the fly
8. Paradox is a statements that appears to be absurd, untrue, or contradictionary, but may actually be true
9. Oxymoron is a form of paradox where two contradictory terms are combined in one phrase. Example: darkly lit, fearful joy
j. Rhytm is the repetition of stress within a poem
2.2 Lyrical Poem
The poem are mostly that we might now call art song, or poems written to sing in plays and maques. A lyric poem is produce of human mind so that we should be aware of the human attitudes, responses, sentiments, ideas and judgments. The lyric poem seems to express emotion in a sudden surge of unpremeditated melody. Poem are not written by influences or movements or sources, but come from the living hearts of men
2.3 A Short Biography and Career of Britney Spears
Britney Spears (born december 2, 19981) in Mc Comb, missisipi, and raised a Southern baptist in Kentwood, lousiana. Her parents, who are now divorced, are James Parnell Spears (born 1963), a building contractor, and Lyne Iren Bridges (born 1956), a former grade school teacher.
She is Grammy-winning American pop singer-songwriter, dancer, occasioanl actress, author and executive producer. Spears is the best known for her highl -published persional life, studios album, music videos and pop songs, ‘baby one more time’.
Spears first came to fame as a member of the new Mickey Mouse Club in the early 1990s, taking a fieve-year break from entertainment after the show wrapped. She subsequently emerged at the forefront of the pop music scene in late 1998, thanks to the crafting of her craft-toping debut album by producer songwriter Max Martin. Her second album, released the following year, was a similarly huge it.
Spears was featured on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine in April 1999. That summer, she kicked of her firstheadlining tour. The baby one more time, by late 1994, Spears had become one of the year’s biggest stars, a claim back up the mount of award nominations she received that seasons. In December, she took home fourb Billboard Music Award including one for female Artist of the year, and the next month on for Favorite pop/rock New artist at the american Music Awards, held in february 2000, Spears received two nominations, including one for Best New Artist
With Worldwide record sales topping the 85 million mark. Britney Spears has become one of the most recognizable celebrities.
3.1 Research Design
Research design is based on logic and common sense. This research design in this study is qualitative. According to Slavin (1992:65) says “Qualitative research is intended to explore important social phenomena by immersing the investigator in the situation for extended periods.
Qualitative research, seek primarily to describe a situation as it is, without formal testing or hypothesis, and and it makes litle or no use of numbers but rather focuses on “thick description”.
3.2 Sources of Data and Data Collection
3.2.1 Sources of Data
The writer takes from album. There is one album that contains their songs, but there is original Soundtrack album that includes one of their single woman. Indonesia conducting the study, the writer uses the lyrics of Britney Spears song album, available in their album, which have been in indonesia until now. There are Britney Spears songs (first album)
1. Baby on More Time
3. Born to make you happy
4. Drive me crazy
5. Email my heart
6. I will still love you
7. Thinking about you
8. I will be there
9. From the bottom of my heart
10. The beat goes
11. Soda pop
3.2.2 data Collection
In this study, the writer used the documentation studies in obtaining the data. The data are the lyrics of Britney Spears songs. The researcher collect the data from their album and website (www.Britney.com). The procedure is carried out based on the existing repetitions.
3.3 Data Analysis
Analysis involves working with data, organizing them, searching for patterns, discovering what is important and what is to be learned, and deciding what you will tell the others. After collecting the data and studying the theories book related to the topic which are believe to be figurative language, then the writer analyzed the data systematically as follows.
1. Identifying the figurative language
e.g. I shouldn’t have let you go
And now you’re out of sight, yeah
Show me how want it to be
Tell me baby cause I need to know now, oh because
2. Classifying the kinds if figurative language into interpeting Literature.
And now you’re out of sight, yeah
The kind of figurative above classified in Metonymy.
3. Finding out the meaning of figurative language.
And now you’re out of sight, yeah
It is has meaning is the boy left the girl.
4. Counting the number of the figurative language
5. Constructing table of frequency of distribution.
6. Change the result in to percentage.
7. Ranking the frequency of distribution of symbols.